Moreover, although enjoying limited freedom of activity for the first time in many years, the National Front and other opposition groups pressed the prime minister for elections and withheld their cooperation.
In addition to land reform, these measures included profit-sharing for industrial workers in private sector enterprises, nationalization of forests and pastureland, sale of government factories to finance land reform, amendment of the electoral law to give more representation on supervisory councils to workers and farmers, and establishment of a Literacy Corps to allow young men to satisfy their military service requirement by working as village literacy teachers.
The language in greatest use in the empire was Aramaic.
There were continuities across the watershed of the Revolution, however; bureaucratic structure and behavior, attitudes toward authority and individual rights, and the arbitrary use of power remained much the same. Reza Shah initially enjoyed wide support for restoring order, unifying the country, and reinforcing national independence, and for his economic and educational reforms.
The Abbasid caliphs began enlisting these people as slave warriors as early as the ninth century. The effects of the war, however, were very disruptive for Iran.
Most of these groups were uncovered and broken up by the security authorities, but two survived: This included the rich lands of the Sawad, a rich, alluvial plain in central and southern Iraq.
These terms did not include the fifty-fifty profit-sharing provision that was part of other new Persian Gulf oil concessions. The shah signed the constitution on December 30, As the power of the Abbasid caliphs diminished, a series of independent and indigenous dynasties rose in various parts of Iran, some with considerable influence and power.
Hashim was an ancestor of both the Shia and the Abbas, or Sunniline, and the Abbasid movement enjoyed the support of both Sunni and Shia Muslims.
Bazargan worked to establish links between his movement and the moderate clerical opposition. Several similar actions followed. It introduced a new religion and a new social and legal system.
Prime Minister Ahmad Qavam had to persuade Stalin to withdraw his troops by agreeing to submit a Soviet oil concession to the Majlis and to negotiate a peaceful settlement to the Azarbaijan crisis with the Pishevari government. In Octoberbelieving his achievements finally justified such a step, the shah celebrated his long-postponed coronation.
Finally Karim Khan Zand was able to defeat his rivals and to unify the country, except for Khorasan, under a loose form of central control. He moved south and then west, conquering but not wasting the cities in his path.
Although Nader Shah achieved political unity, his military campaigns and extortionate taxation proved a terrible drain on a country already ravaged and depopulated by war and disorder, and in he was murdered by chiefs of his own Afshar tribe.
Dozens of worshipers were killed and many injured. Resistance to the shah, however, coalesced in Tabriz, Esfahan, Rasht, and elsewhere. After the elections, the largest bloc in the new Majlis, with forty seats, was a group called the Progressive Center.
These schools and institutions of higher education became training grounds for the new bureaucracy and, along with economic expansion, helped create a new middle class.
The Achaemenid Empire B.Members of the Achaemenid royal bodyguard, from a bas-relief at Persepolis. The Islamic revolution in brought a sudden end to the rule of the Pahlavi dynasty, which for fifty years had been identified with the attempt to modernize and Westernize Iran.Download