A history and use of electromagnetics

Henry detailed his research and findings in letters to colleagues, including Benjamin Silliman, Sr. Magnetic core[ edit ] The material of a magnetic core often made A history and use of electromagnetics iron or steel is composed of small regions called magnetic domains that act like tiny magnets see ferromagnetism.

Modern Uses for Electromagnets: These lines emphasize the important fact that electric fields begin on positive charges and end on negative charges, while magnetic fields do not have beginnings or ends and close on themselves. The arrows in Figure 2 represent the size and direction of the magnetic field for a current moving in the direction indicated.

Nearly 50 years earlier Hans Christian Oersted found that a compass he was using reacted when a battery in his lab was switched on and off [source: Thus, charge determines how electromagnetism influences the motion of charged objects.


Within the core the magnetic field B will be approximately uniform across any cross section, so if in addition the core has roughly constant area throughout its length, the field in the core will be constant.

As early asJean-Antoine Nollet — had performed experiments on the propagation speed of electricity. In this theory, the vitreous and resinous electricities were regarded as imponderable fluids, each fluid being composed of mutually repellent particles while the particles of the opposite electricities are mutually attractive.

Since that time, scientists have sought to test and measure electromagnetic fields, and to recreate them. This piece of electrical apparatus will be easily recognized as the well-known Leyden jar, so called by the Abbot Nollet of Paris, after the place of its discovery.

Therefore, if the distance between the two charges is doubled, the attraction or repulsion becomes weaker, decreasing to one-fourth of the original value.

History of electromagnetic theory

Charge is a basic property of matter. In a transformer, electric power is converted from one voltage level to another by the magnetic field of one circuit inducing an electric current in another circuit. Despite only weighing grams 7 ouncesit could lift objects that weighed approximately 4 kg 9 pounds with only the current of a single-cell battery.

First, because the strength of the field varies from point to point in a complicated way, particularly outside the core and in air gaps, where fringing fields and leakage flux must be considered. Thus, two negative charges repel one another, while a positive charge attracts a negative charge.

Of course, since the second charge also has an electric field, the first charge feels its presence and is either attracted or repelled by the second charge too.

The magnetic force F is proportional to the charge and to the magnitude of velocity v times the magnetic field B. In calculations, it is often more convenient to deal directly with the electric field than with the charges.

Both the leakage flux and the fringing fields get larger as the gaps are increased, reducing the force exerted by the magnet.

The strength of the magnetic field decreases with distance from the wire. Le Monnier in France had previously made somewhat similar experiments, sending shocks through an iron wire 1, feet long.

How Electromagnets Work

It is the sum of the length Lcore in the iron core pieces and the length Lgap in the air gaps G. A negative charge would feel a force in the direction opposite the direction of the field. The act of rubbing a body decomposes the fluids, one of which remains in excess on the body and manifests itself as vitreous or resinous electricity.

What Are The Uses Of Electromagnets?

This also includes field lines that encircle the wire windings but do not enter the core. Therefore, the equations in this section are valid for electromagnets for which: Henry was able to achieve "uniform motion, at the rate of seventy-five vibrations in a minute.

These materials amplify the magnetic field produced by the currents and thereby create more powerful fields. He is widely heralded as a pioneer in the area of electromagnetism, but he is also credited with discovering electromagnetic induction, which we will A history and use of electromagnetics later when we explore some real-world applications.

Magnets have numerous applications, ranging from use as toys and paper holders on home refrigerators to essential components in electric generators and machines that can accelerate particles to speeds approaching that of light. Scroll to explore this topic Electromagnetism Joseph Henrywho became Secretary of the Smithsonian upon its establishment inwas the first in a long line of scientists selected to lead the Institution.

On the right is a mystery piece of apparatus from Vassar College with a wooden base clearly made by Ritchie of Boston.

Figure 3 illustrates the directions of the magnetic force on positive charges and on negative charges as they move in a magnetic field that is perpendicular to the motion. In one of his experiments he sent an electric current through feet of hempen thread which was suspended at intervals by loops of silk thread.

The existence of electromagnetic waves depends on the interaction between electric and magnetic fields. In he similarly claimed that in he had been the first "to think how the electric fire may be the cause of thunder". According to the theory advanced by Cavendish, "the particles attract and are attracted inversely as some less power of the distance than the cube.

By using insulated wire, he was able to place thousands of turns of wire on a single core. And, important for electromagnetism, Maxwell observed that when a current passes through a wire, it generates a magnetic field around the wire.

The unit of electric field is newtons per coulomb, or volts per metre.The electromagnet at the right was made by John Millington when he was the Professor of Chemistry, Natural Philosophy and Engineering at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia.

On the bottom is written his name, the. Who Discovered Electromagnetism? A Timeline of Events in Scientific Advances. Share Flipboard Email Print Thanasis Zovoilis/Getty Images History & Culture.

Inventions Timelines Basics Learn the History of the Compass and Other Magnetic Inventions. The Men Who Helped Invent Radar. Access the official records of the Smithsonian Institution and learn about its history, key events, people, and research he became known among scientists throughout the United States and Europe for his groundbreaking research in electromagnetism.

In working to make more efficient use of his batteries and maximize the power of his. Electromagnetism is an area of physics which involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.


The electromagnetic force usually produces electromagnetic fields, such as electric fields, magnetic fields and. What Are The Uses Of Electromagnets? History of Electromagnets: This was to have a popularizing effect on the use of electromagnets. In this lesson, you'll learn what an electromagnet is, how it is used in a few real-life situations, and the parts that make it up.


A history and use of electromagnetics
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